COPYRIGHT 1994, 1996 Glosa Education Organization
    Version: 1996/05/14  (Prepared for the Web by Paul O. Bartlett, 1996)

                             GLOSA BASIC REFERENCE

    Glosa Education Organizaton
    P. O. Box 18
    Surrey TW9 2AU

    registered charity number 298237

    "Glosa Education Organizaton promotes the teaching of Glosa as a
     second language in schools world-wide.  It also emphasizes that
     besides being an efficient means of international communication,
     Glosa offers advantages to general education."

    Compiled by P. O. Bartlett; edited by W. Ashby and R. Clark.


    GLOSA is an artificial language intended for use among people with
    different native, cultural, or national languages.  It is an auxiliary
    language and has no purpose of supplanting or replacing any other
    languages.  Its purpose is only to be a common means of communication
    for people of different languages.

    Glosa has several distinguishing characteristics:

    1)  Its structure is very simple and based on semantics.  It is an
        analytical language with no inflexions, genders, or diacritical
        marks.  Glosa does have ways of forming plurals, tenses, questions,
        etc., similar to Chinese and Malay, which use a word for each
        idea -- these languages have no inflections.  A small number of
        words handle grammatical relationships not otherwise provided for.
        Many Glosa words can serve as more than one part of speech as
        meaning and common sense allow.

    2)  Glosa words are based on Latin and Greek roots common to the chief
        Euro-languages; via science, technology, and medicine, these words
        are penetrating all languages.  Although a larger vocabulary is
        available, a base vocabulary of between 1000 and 2000 words handles
        most situations.

    3)  Its pronunciation is simple and regular, and its spelling is

    4)  Above all, Glosa is neutral.  Because it is no one's own language,
        it is available to everyone without jealousy or resentment over the
        dominance of any one or a few national languages.  Its use of Latin
        and Greek roots, many of which are already in widespread use, gives
        it internationality.

    Written Glosa uses the unaccented 26-letter Latin alphabet.

    Spelling is phonetic: pronounce every letter;
        double letters in source-words reduce to single letters;
        Greek CH replaced by K, PH by F, RH by R, TH by T, Y by I.

    Pronounce vowels as in these English words:
        fAther, cafE, machIne, mOre, lUnar
    (English speakers should take care not to slur, reduce, or
        diphthongize vowels.)
    Vowel pairs: pronounce the vowels separately.

    Pronounce consonants as in English except:

        C always as CH in CHurCH;
        G always hard as in Go;
        J as the Y in Yes;
        Q as QU in QUick;
        R always sounded, trilled if possible;
        SC as the "sh" sound in neSCience.

    Place stress gently on the vowel before the last consonant.


        Colon precedes items of a list;
        Comma separates list items from each other; it also occurs
            after a vocative expression.
        Semicolon separates principal and subordinate clauses;
            a clause is a group of words containing a finite verb.
        Hyphen joins words closely associated semantically.

    Glosa Mechanics (typical statements):

        u feli                     A cat, the cat
        plu feli; poli feli        Cats; many cats
        tri feli                   Three cats
        u feli tri                 The third cat
        u-ci feli; u-la feli       This cat; that cat
        plu-ci feli, plu-la feli   These cats; those cats
        Fe ki ad urba.             She goes to town.
        Fe nu ki ad urba.          She is now going to town.
        Fe fu ki ad urba.          She will go to town.
        Fe pa ki ad urba.          She went/did go to town.
        Fe pa du ki ad urba.       She was going to town.
        Fe fu du ki ad urba.       She will be going to town.
        Fe nu pa ki ad urba.       She has just gone to town.
        Fe nu fu ki ad urba.       She is just going to go/is about to go ...
        Fe pa more ki ad urba.     She used to go/habitually went to town.
        Fe ne sio ki ad urba.      She wouldn't go to town.
        Lase na ki ad urba.        Let's go to town.
        Lase fe ki ad urba.        Let her go to town.
        Si fe ki ad urba, ...      If she go to town, ...
        Fe sio ki ad urba, ...     She would go to town, ...
        Qe fe ki ad urba?          Is she going to town?
        Qe tu pote ki ad urba?     Can you/are you able to go to town?
        Qo acide?                  What is happening?
        Tu pa vide qo-pe?          Whom did you see?
        Qo-ka fe pa ki ad urba?    Why did she go to town?
        Fe fu posi ki ad urba.     She might go to town.
        gene u feli                Get a cat
        ge-lose feli               Lost cat
        Id frakti; id pa frakti.   It is breaking; it broke.
        Id pa gene frakti.         It got broken.
        Id es ge-frakti.           It is broken.
        lave se                    Wash oneself
        Mi auto pa vide id.        I myself saw it.
        ma; maxi                   more/-er; most/-est
        mei; mini                  less; least
        u andro; qi ...            The man who ...
        u feli; qi ...             The cat which ...
        Opposites with NO-:
            gravi; no-gravi        heavy; light
        Negation with NE-:
            frigi; ne-frigi        cold; not cold (not necessarily hot)
        Tu feno sani.              You look well.
        An feno no-sani.           He looks ill.
        Tu pa gene nati di okto,   You were born on the eighth of May.
            meno pento.
        Mi gene sko de Deutsch.    I am learning German.
        Fe sti fobo mi.            She frightens me.
        Na nece sti logi u demo.   We must make people understand.
        Fe habe dek anua.          She is ten years old.
        An nima es George.         His name is George.
        Place.  Gratia.  Penite.   Please.  Thank you.  Sorry.
        Qo-lo tu eko?              Where to you live?
        Qo es tu eko-lo?           ...
        Qe tu gene sko de Glosa?   Are you learning Glosa?
        retro tri meno             Three months ago
        iso mega de                as big as
        di-mo                      Sunday
        di-bi                      Monday
        Qo horo?  Id es pen horo.  What time is it?  It's 5 o'clock.
        Nona minuta po tri horo    9 minutes past 3
        bi-pen minuta pre six horo 25 minutes to 6
        We went to Rome in March.  Na pa ki a Roma tem meno tri.
        medika-pe                  medical doctor
        medika-fe                  female medical doctor
        medika-an                  male medical doctor
        France-lingua              French (language)

    Further examples:

    Hullo!  Please!  Thank you!             Ave!  Place!  Gratia!
    Congratulations!  Goodbye!              Gratula!  Vale!
    Thank you for your letter.              Gratia de tu grama.
    Excuse me!  Sorry!  Look out!           Pardo!  Penite!  Kura!
    Help me!  They help each other.         Auxi mi!  Mu auxi alelo.
    The engine is working well.             U makina funktio bene.
    Out of order!  Cant find the fault.     No-funktio!  Ne pote detekti u
    Think hard!  You ought to help her.     Kogita!  Tu debi auxi fe.
    She can walk.  Can she walk?            Fe pote gresi.  Qe fe pote gresi?
    He was able to run and jump.            An pa pote dromo e salta.
    Can they jump?                          Qe mu pote salta?
    She was singing; when he came.          Fe pa du kanta; kron an pa veni.
    She has just sat down.                  Fe nu-pa sedi.
    What's going on?  What did you see?     Qo acide?  Tu pa vide qo?
    Why (what CAuse) did it happen?         Qo-ka id pa acide?
    Why (what inTEntion) did he go?         Qo-te an pa ki?
    I know what she's thinking.             Mi ski; qod fe puta.
    I wonder whether she will go.           Mi qestio se; qe fe fu ki.
    The man you saw last week.              Un andro tu pa vide pa setimana.
    The woman; who is going round the       U gina; qi ki peri gono; es
      corner; is my neighbor.                 me para-fe.
    I saw her.  She saw mi.                 Mi pa vide fe.  Fe pa vide mi.
    My books are on the table.              Mi plu bibli es epi tabla.
    They spoke at the same moment.          My pa dice iso-kron.
    He lived during the 19th century.       An pa vive ten centa-anua mo-nona.
    She lives in a German town.             Fe eko in deutsche urba.
    However she likes living in the         Anti-co fe amo eko in rura.
    Worker, Inhabitant, Supporter, Lover    Ergo-pe. In-pe. Pro-pe. Filo-pe.
    Place.  Constituency.  Plateau.         Loka = -lo.  Elekti-lo.  Plati-lo
    Everywhere.  Somewhere.  Nowhere.       Panto-lo.  Uno-lo.  Nuli-lo.
    You look well.  Apparently she cant     Tu feno sani.  Feno, fe ne pote
      come                                    veni.
    Its breaking.  Got broken.  Broken.     Id frakti.  Pa gene frakti.
    Who saw you?  Whom did you see?         Qo-pe pa vide tu[?]  Tu pa vide
    In-spite-of the fine weather,           Anti kali klima
      we stayed indoors.  Outdoors.           na pa resta intra.  Extra.
    Thing.  Something.  Anything. Nothing.  Ra.  Uno-ra.  Ali-ra.  Nuli-ra.
    They say; its only a rumor.             Mu dice; id es solo u mu-dice.
    Where do you live?  Near or far?        To eko qo-lo?  Proxi alo tele?
    He understands.  He doesn't u.          An logi.  An ne logi.
    Does he understand?                     Qe an logi?
    Swit[c]h on / switch off the lamp.      Sti / sto u lampa.
    She made me laugh.                      Fe pa sti ridi me.
    I couldnt help laughing.                Mi ne pa pote ne ridi.
    She's just gone out.                    Fe nu-pa ki ex.
    I'm just going away.                    Mi nu-fu ki ab.
    Upwards.  Downwards.                    Ana.  Kata.
    Head over heels, upside down.           Ana kata.
    Forwards and backwards.                 Avanti e retro.
    Two single tickets, please.             Bi bileta ab, place.
    Three returns, please.  Thank you.      Tri versi bile[ta], place.
    I go to London by car.                  Mi mobi a london.
    She goes by train.  I walk.             Fe trena.  Mi pedi.
    This = the-here.  That = the-there.     U-ci.  U-la.
    This tree is higher than that           U-ci dendro es ma alti de u-la.
    Road way.  Pavement [US: sidewalk].     Rota-via.  Pedi-via.  Kanali.
    Vacuum cleaner.  Computer.              Puri-me.  Puta-me.
    The doctor examined the patient.        U iatri pa examina u pato-pe.
    He was examined by the doctor.          An pa gene examina ex iatri.
    It got hot.  It got cooled in the       Id pa gene termo.  Id pa gene frigi
      refrigerator.                           in frigi-me.
    Steam engine.  Printing press.          Vapo-me.  Tipo-me.
    Book-case.  Writing-desk.               Bibli-mo(bili).  Grafo-mo.
    MA-terial, stuff.  Beverage.            Materia, -ma.  Bibe-ma.
    Mineral.  Sediment.  Ingredient.        Geo-ma.  Infra-ma.  Mero-ma.
    Food.  Raw ma-terial.  Scum.            Vora-ma.  Proto-ma.  Supra-ma.
    Extinct animals.  Extant plants.        Plu pre-nu zoa.  Plu nu fito.
    I must go.  I had to go.                Mi nece ki.  Mi pa nece ki.
    I shall have to go.                     Mi fu nece ki.
    She ought to go.                        Fe debi ki.
    She ought to have gone.                 Fe pa debi ki.
    I reckon, believe, opine, doubt.        Mi puta, kredi. doxo, dubi.
    I'll keep this.  Keep it hot.           Mi fu tena u-ci.  Tena id termo.
    Careful!  Dont fall!                    Kura!  Ne kade!
    Mother-in-law.  Aunt.                   Andro-matri.  Parenta sorori.

    Word order for accurate, easy, and quick understanding should be:
        Subject (with accompanying adjectival and modifying cluster),
        Negative if required, Modal Verb, Main Verb, Indirect Object,
        and Direct Object.  This order is preserved in Subordinate Clauses.

    "U(n)" and "plu" serve primarily as nouns markers when the sense
        is not otherwise clear.  They are not necessary (but are
        permissible) after a preposition.

    Use genus name for plants and animals.
    When possible, use local geographical names.
    Do not translate idioms literally word for word;
        express in clear, unidiomatic Glosa.


Return to the Start of The Learning Page OR continue to the Dictiobnary. Glosa-English and English-Glosa vocabularies are in parallel columns. Following the parallel vocabularies are short lists of "functional" words by category. When doing a computer search on English words, search all instances; also search on first part of Glosa words for similar occurrences. _______________________________________________________________________________ GLOSA-ENGLISH | ENGLISH-GLOSA ______________________________________|________________________________________ | a(d) towards, at |a bit of, a little peci ab away, sent |a pair u bi abbey abe |a(n), the u(n) abili able to be |able to be abili academi academy |about, in relation to de acide happen |above, over su, supra adapta adapt |academy academy adeno gland |accept cepti adi add |accident, unlucky mali-fortuna adverbi adverb |accomplish kompli aero air |accordingly akorda-co aerodroma aerodrome, airport |accumulate kumu aeroplana airplane, aeroplane |accusation etio afro foam |acid akidi age drive |acorn glandi agenti agent |acquire prokura agri field |across trans agrio wild |act drama akidi acid |act, do, behave akti akorda agree |adapt adapta akorda-co accordingly |add adi akro top, tip |additional, too, also plus akti act, do, behave |administer kura aktivi busy |adverb adverbi aku nail, needle |advise, counsel koncili akusti hear |affair ra, pragma akuto sharp |afraid senti, ala wing | este fobo albi white |after po, post album album |afterwards po-co alelo each other |again itera alexi defend |against anti alga alga |age eva algo pain |agent agenti ali any |agree akorda ali-kron whenever |aim, butt buta ali-pe whoever |aim, purpose tende ali-ra whatever, whichever |air aero aliena foreign |airplane, aeroplane aeroplana aligatora alligator |airport, aerodrome aerodroma alfabeti alphabet |album album alo or |alga alga also plus, ko-co |all pan, panto alterna alternate |alligator aligatora alti high |almond amigda ambasadora ambassador |alone solo ambi both |alphabet alfabeti ambienta environment |also ko-co ambula amble |already pre-nu ami friend |alternate alterna amigda almond |amaze sti mira amila starch |ambassador ambasadora amo love, like |amble ambula amorfo lump |amount qantita amplexi embrace |amuse amusa amusa amuse |anchor ankora an he, him, his |ancient arkeo an-regi king |and e ana upwards |angle, corner gono anas duck |angry, anger koleri andro man, husband |animal zoa, animali animali animal |ankle tarsu animo mind |announce sti ski ankora anchor |annoy, irritate vexa anseri goose |answer repli, responde antarktika antarctic |ant formika ante front, in front, ahead |antarctic antarktika antena antenna |antenna antena anti against |anvil inku anti-co however, nevertheless |anxious ge-turba anto flower |any ali anua year |apart from that no-klu-co aperi open |apartment, flat kamera-fa apis bee |apple malus, pomi aplika apply |apply aplika apo remove |appreciate apreci apreci appreciate |arc arka aqa water |arch arca ara plough, plow |arctic arctika aranea spider |area, region area arca arch |arithmetic aritmetika area area, region |arm braki arena sand |army arme argenti silver |around peri aritmetika arithmetic |arrange taxo arka arc |arrest rapi arkeo ancient |arrogant aroga arki chief, authority |arrow sagita arktika arctic |art arti arma weapon |article artikla arme army |artificial ge-face aroga arrogant |artist artisti arti art |as (while) tem artikla article |as (because) ka artikula joint | artisti artist |ashamed este etio artro joint |ashes cinera asila safe place |ask onself qestio se asinus donkey, ass |aspect aspekti aspekti aspect |association asocia asocia association |assume assume astro star |astonish stupe asume assume |athlete atleti ateli stamp (postage) |attack viole atende wait |attitude mode, senti atitudi mood |automatic automati atleti athlete |autumn sperma-tem atria hall, cavity |avalanche avalanca audi hear |average medio auri ear |available existe aurora dawn |avoid evita austra south |awake vigi auto self, own |away, sent ab auto-lauda proud |axe, hatchet peleki automati automatic |axis, axle axi auxi help |baby babi avanti forward |bachelor no-game-an avari greedy |back dorsa avena oats |back to begin versi avi bird |back to fr., upside down verte away ab |background fonda axi axis, axle |backward, ago retro babi baby |bad, evil, wicked kako, mali baci rod, stick, bar |baffle perplexi baia bay |bag, sack saka baka berry |bake furna bale ballet |balance eqilibri, libra bali throw |balcony balkoni balkoni balcony |bale paka balno bath, bathe |ball bola baluna balloon |ballet bale bambu bamboo |balloon baluna banana banana |bamboo bambu banda tape, band |banana banana bang bang |band banda banka bank |bang bang bapti dip |bank banka bara bar |bank (river) ripa barbaro barbarous |bank account konto barira barrier |bar bara baro press |barbarous barbaro baroni baron |bark (dog) voci basi grounds |bark, cortex kortika baso base, low |barley hordea bata bat |baron baroni bate hit, strike, knock, beat |barrier barira bateri battery |base, low baso benca bench |baseball besboli bene well |basket korbi benzina petrol, gasoline |bat bata besboli baseball |bath, bathe balno bi two |battery bateri bibe drink |bay baia bibli book |be silent taci bileta ticket |be, am, is, are es bio life |bead globula bira beer |beak rostri birota bicycle |bean faba biskokta wafer |beautiful kali blada blade |because of ka, kausa blasto bud |beckon sema blasto-tem spring |become gene, esce bloka log |bed kli blonda blond |bee apis bo (-bo) shop |beer bira bola ball |before pre bombasti boast |begin komence bombus bumblebee |behind poste boni good |beige leuko-bruno boni-fortuna lucky, good-luck |believe kredi boreo north |bell kampani boreo-me compass |bellows foli, fisa boteka shop |bench benca botilia bottle |bend flexi botina boot |benefit profito bovi ox, cow/cattle |berry baka, koku braki arm |beside para brasika cabbage |bet divi brevi short |between, among inter brika brick |beyond ultra brio moss |bicycle birota bronto thunder |big mega brosa brush |bile kole bruno brown |bird avi buka cheek, buccal |birth nati bulbo bulb |birthday nati-di buleta bullet |bit, piece mero buli boil |bite morda bungalo bungalow |bitter pikro buno hill |black melano burgo borough |bladder kisti buro office |blade blada bursa purse, bourse |blister vesikula bus bus |blond blonda busti burn |blood hema buta aim, butt |blow fla butiri butter |blow, impact impakti butona button |blue ciano buz buzz |board taba carta map, chart |boast bombasti casa chase, hunt |boat, ship navi cede yield, cede |body soma cek cheque, check |boil buli celebra celebrate |bone osteo celu cell |bonnet kapota centi hundred |book bibli centra centre, center |boot botina cepa onion |borough burgo cepti accept |borrow tem gene cereali cearals |both ambi cerebra brain |bottle botilia cerka search, circling |bottom funda certa (u-) certain (a) |box teka certifi certified |boy ju-an ceru wax |braid plekto cervika neck |brain enkefa, cerebra ci here |branch, stick rami ciano blue |bread pani cide kill |break frakti cigni swan |breast (female) mama ciklo wheel, cycle |breathe spira cilia eyelash |brick brika cinera ashes |bridge ponti ciri curl, cirrus |bristle seta, kaeto cirkulatio traffic |broad-minded liberali cirkusta circumstance |broadcast difusi cisori scissors |broken ge-frakti citri lemon |brother fratri civi citizen |brown bruno civili courteous |bruise kontusi civiliza civilize |brush brosa civita city |bud blasto co the-just-said |bugle trompeta cokolata chocolate |build tekto dama tame |building, house do (-do), domi data data, fact, news |bulb bulbo datu date (day) |bullet buleta daukus carrot |bumblebee bombus de about, in relation to |bungalow bungalo debi should, ought |burn busti debito debt |bus bus decide decide |busy aktivi deduce infer |but sed defekti defect |butter butiri defi defy, challenge |butterfly lepidoptera, deino terrible | papilio deka ten |buttocks glutea, piga deklara state (to) |button butona deko seemly, apt |buy merka delegati delegate |buzz buz delikati delicate |by means of, with per demo people |cabbage brasika demonstra prove |cable kabla dendro tree |calendar kalendari densi dense |camp kampi denti tooth |can, able pote derma skin |cancel, lattice kancela deserta desert |candle kandela deskribe describe |canvas kanabi destru destroy |capital, city kapitala detekti find |car mobi dextro right-hand |car vagona di day |carbon karboni dia through |card karta diaboli devil |cardboard kartona diali dial |care kura dice say, speak, tell |carpet tape difere differ |carrot daukus difusi broadcast |carry fero digi finger |carry, lever vekto digita finger, toe |carve skulptu diluti dilute |(in the) case (of) kaso diluvi flood |cassette kaseta dina force |castle kastela dinamo power |cat, feline feli, felis diplo double |catch kapti dipso thirsty |cave kaverno, speleo diptera fly (insect) |cearals cereali direkti direct, direction |cease to no-dura dirigi direct |celebrate celebra disipa waste |cell celu disko disc, disk, plate |centre, center centra disputa quarrel, argue |certain (a) certa (u-) dista far, distant |certified certifi distribu distribute |chain, catenary katena divi bet |chalk kreta divide divide |chance fortuna divina guess |change muta do (-do) building, house |chapter kapitula doci teach |chase, hunt casa doci-pe teacher |check verifi domi building, house |cheek, buccal buka domina dominate, master |cheese kasea dominio domain |chemical kemi dona give |cheque, check cek dona odoro smell (emit) |chest toraki dorsa back |chicken galina dosie file |chief arki doxo opinion, opine |chief, leader, guide duce drama act |child infanti dromo run |chocolate cokolata du continuous, -ing |choose elekti dubita doubt |Christmas kristonati duce chief, leader, guide |cinema kinema dulo slave |circumstance cirkusta dura hard, lasting |citizen civi dura feru steel |city civita duranto while, during |civilize civiliza e and |classify, grade klasi eduka educate |clay kerami efekti effect |clean puri eficie efficient |clear klari egotisti selfish |climb skende eko (to) live, (to) house |cloak toga elasti spring |close, shut klude elefa elephant |cloth te (-te), elekti choose | textili elektro electric |cloud nefo elektroni electronic |club, bat korina elementa simple |coal karbo emotio emotion |coat mantela enciklopedia encyclopedia |cocoa kakao energi energy |code kodi enigma puzzle |coffee kafa enkefa brain |coin moneta enkontra meet |cold frigi entero intestines, gut |cold in head koriza epi on |collar kola-ve eqa equal |collect kolekti eqilibri balance |college kolegi equs horse |color kroma ergo work |colorless minus kroma erinaceus hedgehog |column kolumni eritro red |comb pektina ero mistake |combine kombina es be, am, is, are |come veni es de is of, belongs to |comfort konsola esce become |comic komika espio spy |comma koma est east |command komanda este feel, conscious |commerce komerci este odoro smell (sense) |committee komiti etio guilty, accusation |common komuni eu good |communicate komunika eva age |companion kamerada evita avoid |company kompani evolve develop |compare kompara ex from, by |compass boreo-me examina examine |compensate kompensa excesi too |compete kompeti excite excite |complain protesta exclude exclude |complicate komplika exempla example |compose komposi exercise exercise |computer puta-me existe exist, available |concave konkavi exkreti excrete |condition konditio expande get bigger, expand |cone koni expekta expect |confess konfesi experi experience |conform konformi experimenta experiment |confuse konfusi explika explain |congratulate gratula explode explode |conifer konifera extende extend, spread |connect konekti, nexi extra outside |conscious konski extra fiska customs |consequently seqe-co extracto extract |consume konsume fa (-fa) group, set |contain kleisto faba bean |context kontextu face make |continent kontinenta facia face |continuous, -ing du facili easy |control kontrola fago eat |conversely kontra-co faktora factor |convex konvexi faktu fact |cook kuko fali fail |copper kupra falsi wrong, deceive, fraud |copy kopi famili family |copy, mimic mimi famina hungry |cord korda famo fame, famous |cork suberi farina flour |corrode korodi faringi throat |cosmetic kosmeti farmako drug |cotton kotona, kotoni, fascina fascinate, charm | gosipa faski group, set |cough tusi faskina fascinate |counter (shop) mensa fatiga tire |country (a) landa fatuo silly, fatuous |countryside rura favi honeycomb |courage koragio favo favor |court of law tribuna fe she, her |courteous civili fe-regi queen |cover tegu feki excrement |crab kancero feli cat, feline |crab, cancer kancera, felis cat, feline | kanceri fenestra window |crater, basin kratera feno seem |create poeia fenu hay |credit kredito fermenta ferment |creep, crawl repti fero carry |crest kresta fertili fertile |crest lofo feru iron, ferro-, ferrous |crimson purpuro-rubi festa holiday |crisis krisi fi (-fi) thread |criticize kritici, fibro fiber, fibre | kritika fikti pretend |cross kruci filament thread |crown korona fili offspring |cruel sadi filma film |crumb, chip mika filo love, philo- |crumble fria filtra filter, filtre |cube kubi fini end, finish |cultivate kulti fiska tax |cunning strategi fisa bellows |cup tasa fisu split, crack |cup, calyx kalici fito plant (living) |curl, cirrus ciri fixa fix, tighten |curve kurva fla blow |cushion kosina flaci slack, flaccid |customs extra fiska flagela whip |cut seka flama flame |cylinder kilindri flash flash |dance kore flavoro flavour, flavor, taste |danger risko flexi bend |dark skoto floka flake |dark green melano kloro flori flower |data, fact, news data flu flow |date (day) datu fluidi fluid |date (fruit) fikus fluvi river |dawn aurora fo (fo-) very, intense |day di fo-kloro deep green |dear karo fobo fear, phobia |death morta foeni date (fruit) |debt debito foku focus, centre, center |decide decide foli bellows |decorate orna folia leaf |deep profunda fonda background |deep green fo-kloro fono sound |defect defekti fora hole |defend alexi forma shape, form |defy, challenge defi formika ant |delegate delegati formula formula |delicate delikati forti very, intense |dense densi fortuna chance |depend pende ex fosi dig |describe deskribe foto light, photo- |desert deserta fragma partition |deserve, merit merito frakti break |desire libido frase sentence |destroy destru, nekro fratri brother |develop evolve frea a well |device mekani freqe often |device, mechanism me (-me), fresko fresh, ventilation | mekina fria crumble |devil diaboli frigi cold |dial diali frigi-tem winter |differ difere frika rub, friction |different hetero frikti rub |dig fosi fronta forehead |digestion pepsi fru enjoy |dilute diluti frukti fruit |dip bapti frustra disappoint |direct dirigi fu shall, future |direct, direction direkti fu pa shall have |disappoint frustra fu-di tomorrow |disc, disk, plate disko fugi run away |distribute distribu fumi smoke |disturb turba funda bottom |ditch, canal kanali fungu fungus |dive merge fungus fungus |divide divide funktio useful |do, act akti furka fork |do business negotia furna stove |dog, canine kani fusi pour |domain dominio fusili gun |dominate, master domina fusio fusion |donkey, ass asinus futuri future |door porta, janu gaia living earth |double diplo galina chicken |doubt dubita game marry |dough, paste pasta game-zo wedding ring |downwards kata gania win |draw, write grafi gasi gas |dress tunika gastro stomach |drink bibe gazeta periodical |drive age ge (ge-) get- |drop lase kade ge-frakti broken |drop (of liquid) guta ge-geli frozen |drug farmako gelato ice cream |drum timpani geli freeze, congeal |drunk narko gemini twin |dry sika gene get |duck anas generali general |each singu geneti inherit |each other alelo gentili gentle |eager, enthusiastic, genu knee, kneel | fervent zelo geo earth |ear auri, oti gero old age |early pre-kron gimno naked |earth geo gina woman, wife |earth, ground, soil tera gira rotate |east orienta, est glabro smooth |easy facili glacia ice |eat fago, vora gladia sword |edge, border margina glandi gland, acorn |educate eduka glena socket |effect efekti glisa slide, glide |efficient eficie globula bead |egg ova glosa tongue, language, Glosa |eight ok, okto gluko nice, sweet |elbow kubita gluma husk, bran, chaff |electric elektro glutea buttocks |electronic elektroni gluto swallow |elephant elefa gnata jaw, beak |embrace amplexi gono angle, corner |emotion emotio gosipa cotton |empire imperi gra grass |empty vaku, keno gradu step, grade |encyclopedia enciklopedia grafi draw, write |end, finish fini grafo write |energy energi gram-ami pen-pal |enjoy fru grama letter, telegram |enough sati grama-teka letter box |entertain hospita grama-ve envelope |environment ambienta, gramatika grammar | peri-lo gramini grass |equal eqa grandi grand, noble |especially su toto gratia thanks |even klu gratia de thank you for |even so klu-co gratis free, without paying |evening vespera gratula congratulate |everybody panto-pe gravi heavy |everything panto-ra gravita gravity |examine examina grega herd, flock, party |examine by touch palpa gresi walk |example exempla gru fit, adapt |exchange kambio guarda guard |excise in-fiska guera war |excite excite gumi rubber |exclude exclude gusta taste |excrement feki, kopro guta drop (of liquid) |excrete exkreti habe have, possess |exercise exercise habitu habit, custom |exist existe hedo happy |expect expekta helika spiral |experience experi helio sun |experiment experimenta hema blood |explain explika hemi half |explode explode hepa liver |extend, spread extende hesi sticky |extract extracto hesita hesitate |eye, peep oku hetero different |eyebrow supracilia hetero-co otherwise |eyelash cilia hiao yawn |face facia hiberna winter |fact faktu hidro water |factor faktora hierarki hierarchy |fail fali hieroglifo hieroglyph |fall kade hiper over, above |fame famo hipo under, below |family famili histo tissue |far, distant tele, dista histori history |farewell vale holo whole |fascinate, charm fascina, homari lobster | faskina homi humankind, person |fast, quick, speed tako homini human |fat lipo homo like |fat, obese obesi homo-co similarly |father patri honesti honest |favor favo hordea barley |fawn polio-bruno horizo horizon |fear, phobia fobo horizonta horizontal |feather pina horo hour |feel, conscious este horo-me clock, watch |ferment fermenta horti garden |fertile fertili hospi guest |few oligo hospita entertain |fiber, fibre fibro humidi humid, moist |field agri, kampo id it |fight pugna id es it is, i.e. |fight, war milita idea thought, idea |file dosie idio unique, private, peculiar|fill, full ple il es there is, there are |film filma imagina imagine |filter, filtre filtra imbrika overlap |find detekti impakti blow, impact |finger digi, digita imperi empire |fire, pyre piro importa import |first, begin proto imuni safe |fish piski in in |fit, adapt, suitable kongru, gru in-fiska excise |five pen, penta in addition plus-co |fix, tighten fixa to all that plus-co |flag, badge insignia indika point to |flake floka industri industry |flame flama infanti child |flash flash influ influence |flashlight, torch marsu-lampa info information |flat and wide plati infra under, beneath |flat, plane plano infra tunika skirt |flavour, flavor, taste flavoro inklude include |flax, linen linu inku anvil |float plankto insekti insect |flood diluvi insignia flag, badge |floor pedi-lo instanta instant |flour farina instrumenta tool |flow flu insula island |flower anto, flori insura insurance |fluid fluidi inter between, among |fly vola interese interest |fly (insect) diptera internatio international |foam afro internexu networking |fog, mist nebula intestina intestine |focus, centre, center foku intra inside |fold plika investi invest |follow seqe involve wrap up |food sito iride rainbow |fool moroni iso identical |foot pedi |for, in favor of pro itera again |forbid veto itinera travel |force dina ja yes |forehead fronta jace lie [position] |foreign aliena, xeno janu door |forgive, pardon pardo joko joke |fork furka ju very young |formula formula ju-an boy |forward avanti ju-fe girl |four tet, tetra judika judge, decide, verdict |fox vulpe juga join |free libe Juglans walnut |free time, leisure libe-tem jura swear oath |free, unbidden sponta jurnala newspaper |free, without paying gratis justi just, fair |freeze, congeal geli juve young |fresh fresko ka because of |friend ami ka (-ka) room |frog rana ka-co therefore |from, by ex kabla cable |front, in front ante kade fall |frost krista kaeto bristle |fruit frukti kafa coffee |fungus fungu, miko, kakao cocoa | fungus kako bad, evil, wicked |fusion fusio kalendari calendar |future futuri kali beautiful |garden horti kalici cup, calyx |garment ve (-ve), kalki heel | vesti kalkula pebble |gas gasi kamae on ground |general generali kambio exchange |gentle gentili kame on the ground |get gene kamera room |get bigger, expand expande kamera-fa apartment, flat |get- ge (ge-) kamerada companion |girl ju-fe kamiona van |give dona kampani bell |gland adeno, glandi kampi camp |glass vitri kampo field |glasses plu lenti kanabi canvas |go ki kanali ditch, canal |goat kapri kancela cancel, lattice |god teo kancera crab, cancer |golden kriso kanceri crab, cancer |good boni, eu kancero crab |goose anseri kandela candle |govern krati kani dog, canine |grade (to) ordina kanta sing, song |grammar gramatika kanti sing, song |grand, noble grandi kapila hair |grandparent parenta-par. kapitala capital, city |grasp sasi kapitula chapter |grass gra, gramini kapota bonnet |gravity gravita kapri goat |greedy avari kapsa parcel, capsule |green kloro kapsu parcel |greenish sub kloro kapti catch |grey, gray polio karbo coal |grounds basi karboni carbon |group, set fa (-fa), karcera prison | faski kardia heart |grow kresce kardina hinge |guard guarda kargo load, cargo, charge |guess divina karis shrimp |guest hospi kariti pity |guilty etio karni meat |gun fusili karo dear |habit, custom habitu, more karpe pluck, harvest |hair kapila, triko karpu wrist |half hemi, semi karta card |hall, cavity atria kartona cardboard |hammer malea kasea cheese |hand manu kaseta cassette |hang pende kaso (in the) case (of) |happen acide kastela castle |happy hedo kata downwards |hard sklero katena chain, catenary |hard, lasting dura kauda tail |hare lago kauli stalk |harm noku kausa because of |hate odio kaverno cave |have just nu-pa kavita hollow |have, possess habe kefa head |hay fenu keloni tortoise |he, him, his an kemi chemical |head kefa keno empty |health sani kerami clay |heap kumu kerati horn |hear akusti, audi ki go |heart kardia ki ab leave, go away |heat termo kili roll |heavy gravi kilindri cylinder |hedgehog erinaceus kilo thousand |heel kalki kine move |help, auxiliary auxi kinema cinema |herd, flock, party grega kisti bladder |here ci kito living cell |hesitate hesita klandi lame, limp |hide, cryptic kripto klari clear |hierarchy hierarki klasi classify, grade |hieroglyph hieroglifo klasti smash |high alti klavi key, clue |hill buno, kolina kleida lock |hinge kardina kleisto contain |hint, symptom simpto klepto steal, thieve |hip, thigh koxa kli bed |hire lue klima weather |history histori klina slope, prone |hit, strike, knock, beat bate kloro green, chloro- |hold, keep from change tena kloseta toilet, W.C. |hole fora klu even |holiday festa, klu-co even so | libe-tem klude close, shut |hollow kavita ko(n) with, present |honest honesti ko-co also |honey meli koano collar |honeycomb favi kodi code |hook unki kogita think (hard) |hope spe kognati related, cognate |horizon horizo koklea snail |horizontal horizonta koku berry |horn kerati, kornu kole bile |horse equs kolea sheath |hospital pato-do kolegi college |hour horo kolekti collect |house, building domi koleri angry, anger |how many? qo numera kolina hill |how much? qo metri kolumni column |how much? / how many? qanto koma comma |how often? qo freqe komanda command |how? komo kombina combine |however, nevertheless anti-co komence begin |howl ulula komerci commerce |human homini komika comic |humankind, person homi komiti committee |humid, moist humidi komo how? |hundred centi kompani company |hungry famina kompara compare |husk, bran, chaff gluma kompensa compensate |I, me, my mi kompeti compete |ice glacia, kompli accomplish | kristali komplika complicate |ice cream gelato komposi compose |identical iso komuni common |if si komunika communicate |imagine imagina kon alelo together |import importa koncesio lease |improve meliora koncili advise, counsel |in in konditio condition |in order to te konekti connect |in this way per-co konfekti jam |include inklude konfesi confess, admit |industry industri konformi conform |infer deduce konfusi confuse |influence influ kongru fit, adapt, suitable |information info koni cone |inherit geneti konifera conifer |insect insekti konka shell |inside intra konkavi concave |insofar as metro konski conscious |instant kron, instanta konsola comfort |instead of, replace vice konsume consume |instruct sko kontextu context |instruction, lesson sko kontinenta continent | give instruction done sko konto bank account |instrument, tool ru (-ru) kontra opposite |insurance insura kontra-co conversely |interest interese kontrola control |international internatio kontusi bruise |intestine, gut intestina, konvexi convex | entero kope oar |invest investi kopi copy |iron, ferro-, ferrous feru kopro excrement |is of, belongs to es de kopula mate (to) |island insula koragio courage |it id korbi basket |it is, i.e. id es korda cord |jam konfekti kore dance |jaw mandibula korina club, bat |jaw, beak gnata koriza cold in head |jerk spasmo kornu horn |join juga, zigo korodi corrode |joint artikula, korona crown | artro korta woo; court, yard |joke joko kortika bark, cortex |judge, decide judika kosina cushion |juice suku kosmeti cosmetic |jump, leap salta kosmi universe |just about to nu-fu kosmo space, cosmos |just, fair justi kosta rib, side, coast |kangaroo makropus kotona cotton |key, clue klavi kotoni cotton |kidney rena koxa hip, thigh |kill cide krania skull, cranium |kind, sort speci kratera crater, basin |king an-regi krati govern |kiss osku, oskula kredi believe |knee, kneel genu kredito credit |knife kultela krepita rustle, whisper |know, knowledge ski kresce grow |ladder skala kresta crest |lake laku, limni, kreta chalk | limno kri separate |lame, limp klandi kribri sieve |language, tongue lingua, glosa kripto hide, cryptic |larva larva krisi crisis |last ultima kriso golden |late po-kron, tardi krista frost |laugh ridi kristali ice |laugh at ridi anti kristonati Christmas |law lega kritici criticize |lead (Pb) plumba kritika criticize |leaf folia kroma color |lease koncesio kron instant |least mini kruci cross |leave behind linqi krudi raw |leave, go away ki ab kubi cube |left (hand) levo kubita elbow |left (remaining) resta kuko cook |leg poda kultela knife |legumes legumi kulti cultivate |lemon citri kumbe lie (down) |lend tem dona kumu heap, accumulate |lens lenti kune wedge |less mei kunea wedge |less...than kupra copper |let, permit lase, lice, kura care, administer | permite kurva curve |letter (a,b,c), spell litera kuspi point, cusp |letter, telegram grama la there |level libela labia lip |lick liko labori work, labor |lie (down) kumbe lacera tear (rip) |lie [position] jace lago hare |life bio, vita lakrima tear (eye); weep, cry |light lumi lakti milk |light weight levia laku lake |light, photo- foto lamina slice |like homo lampa shine |limit, qualify limita lana wool |line line landa country (a) |lion leo lapse slip |lip labia larva larva |liquid liqi lase let, permit, allow |list, series seri, lista lase kade drop |litre,liter litra latex rubber |live vive lati wide |liver hepa latici rubber |living cell kito latri worship |living earth gaia latu side |lizard sauru lauda praise |load, cargo, charge kargo lava wash |lobster homari laxa loose |lock kleida laxi loose |log bloka lega law |long, length longi legumi legumes |look spekta lekto read |look (at) skope lenti lens |loose laxa, laxi lento slow |lose lose leo lion |love, philo- filo lepido scale |love, like amo lepidoptera butterfly |lucky boni-fortuna lepto slender |lump amorfo lepus rabbit |lung pulmona leuko white |machine makina leuko kloro pale green |mad rabi leuko-bruno beige |madam, missus siniora leva raise |magic magika levia light weight |magnetism magneti levo left (hand) |maize (U.S.: corn) zea lexi word |make face li (-li) stone |man, husband andro liabili responsible |many poli libe free |many, a lot of multi libe-tem free time, leisure |map, chart carta libela level |marry game liberali broad-minded |march marca libido desire |March (month) mars, meno tri libra balance |marsh paluda lice may, allowed, licensed |mass masi liga tie |massage masage ligni wood |match (flaming) lucifera liko lick |mate (to) kopula limi mud |may, allowed, licensed lice limina threshold |meanwhile tem-co limita limit, qualify |measure metri limni lake |meat karni limno lake |media media limo mud, slime |medical medika line line |medium mediu lingua language, tongue |meet enkontra linqi leave behind |meet-ing unio linu flax, linen |metal metali lipo fat |meter, metre metra liqi liquid |method, way metodi, mode lisi separate |middle meso lista list |might, may, perhaps posi litera letter (a,b,c), spell |milk lakti lito stone |millet panika litora shore |million miliona litra litre,liter |mind animo, menta lo (-lo) place |mind, soul psiko lofo crest |mine u-mi logi understand |mine (coal, etc.) mina logika reason (to) |minute minuta loka place |mirror spekula longi long, length |miss (person) siniorina lose lose |missile misili lubrika oil (to) |mistake ero luci transparent |mister sinior lucifera match (flaming) |mix mixa ludo play |model modela lue hire |molecule molekula lukta struggle, wrestle |money, currency valuta lumi light |monkey, ape simia luna moon |month meno lupus wolf |mood atitudi lustra polish |moon luna ma more, -er |moral morali ma (-ma) stuff, matter |more (number) plei more...than |more, -er ma magika magic |more...than magneti magnetism |moreover plus-co magnetofono recorder |morning mana, matina makina machine |moss brio, muski makropus kangaroo |most (number), majority pleisto makula spot, stain, mark |most, -est maxi malea hammer |mother matri mali bad |mother-in-law gina-matri / mali-fortuna accident, unlucky | andro-matri malus apple |motivate motiva mama breast (female) |motor motori mana morning |mountain monti mandibula jaw |mouse mio mantela coat |mouth os, stoma manu hand |move kine marca march |move, put, drive moti margina edge, border |mud, slime lime, limo mari sea |muscle muskula marsu pocket |music musika marsu-lampa flashlight, torch |must nece masage massage |mutual mutua masi mass |mystery misteri materi stuff, matter |nail, hoof ungua matina morning |nail, needle aku matri mother |naked gimno, nudi matura ripe |name nima, nomina maxi most, -est |narrow steno me (-me) device, mechanism |nation natio media media |nature natura medika medical |nearly proxi medio average |neck cervika mediu medium |negative something (to) nega mega big, much, a lot |neither / nor ni mei less |nerve nervo, neuro less...than |nest nido mekani device |network, interconnection nexu, reti mekina device, mechanism |networking internexu melano black |new neo melano kloro dark green |news item nova meli honey |newspaper jurnala meliora improve |nice, sweet gluko memo remember |night nokti, noktu menace threaten |nine nona meno month |no no mensa counter (shop) |nod nuta menta mind |node, knot nodi merge dive |north boreo, nord merito deserve, merit |nose, to smell nasa merka buy |nostril nari mero bit, piece |not, negative ne meso middle |note (to) nota meso-di noon |nothing, not at all nuli metali metal |now, the present nu metodi method, way |nowhere nuli-lo metra meter, metre |nucleus nuklea metri measure |number, count numera metri-co to that extent |nut nuki metro insofar as |nut (tool) oklu mi I, me, my |oar kope mika crumb, chip |oats avena miko fungus |obey obe mikro tiny |ocean oceani miliona million |offer ofero milita fight, war |office buro, ofici mimi copy, mimic |offspring fili mina mine (coal, etc.) |often freqe mini least |oil olea minus without, lack, minus |oil (to) lubrika minus kroma colorless |ointment unktu minuta minute |old paleo mio mouse |old age gero mira wonder |on epi miria very many |on ground kamae mis wrong |on the ground kame misili missile |one (digit) mo misteri mystery; weird |one (person) pe mite send |one says pe dice mixa mix |onion cepa mo one (digit) |open aperi mo (-mo) piece of furniture |opener (tool) aperi-ru mobi car |opine opinio mobili piece of furniture |opinion, opine doxo mode method, way |opportunity okasio modela model |opposite kontra molekula molecule |(opposite meaning) no(n) moli soft; grind |oppress opresi moneta coin |or alo monito warn |orange rubi-xanto, monstra show | orange monti mountain |ordinary ordinari, morali moral | vulga morda bite |organ organi more habit, custom |organism organismo morfo shape |origin, source origi moroni fool |original ur- morta death |oscillate, shake osci moti move, put, drive |otherwise hetero-co motiva motivate |outside extra motori motor |oval ovali mu they, them, their |over, above hiper muci slime, mucus |overlap imbrika multi many, a lot of |own (to) proprie munda world |ox, cow/cattle bovi mura wall |oxidise, rust oxidi muri rats and mice |page pagina musika music |pain algo muski moss |pale green leuko kloro muskula muscle |pan patela muta change |paper papira mutua mutual |paralyse paralisi na we, us, our |parcel, capusle kapsu, kapsa, nari nostril | paketa narko drunk |parent parenta nasa nose, to smell |partition fragma nati birth |partner socia natio nation |pass pasa natura nature |past, did, -ed pa navi boat, ship |patient tolera ne not, negative |pay paga nebula fog, mist |pea pisu, pisum nece must |peace paci nefo cloud |peach persika nega negative something (to) |pear pirus negotia do business |pebble kalkula nekro destroy |pen stilo nekto swim |pen-pal gram-ami neo new |pencil pencila nervo nerve |people demo neuro nerve |poetry poesi nexi connect, attach |pepper pipera nexu network, interconnection |perfect perfekti ni neither / nor |periodical gazeta nido nest |persecute persekuti nikti wink |person persona nima name |person, worker pe (-pe) nivi snow |petrol, gasoline benzina no no |picture, image pikto no(n) opposite meaning |piece of furniture mo (-mo), no-dura cease to | mobili no-klu-co apart from that |pig, swine sui no-qestio uninquisitive |pill pilula nodi node, knot |pillow, cushion pulvina nokti night |pink rosa noktu night |pity kariti noku harm |place lo (-lo), loka nomina name |plan, scheme skema non-ofero withhold |plant (living) fito nona nine |plant (to) planta nord north |platform platiforma norma standard, norm, average |play ludo nota note (to) |please place nova news item |plough, plow ara nu now, the present |pluck, harvest karpe nu-di today |plum prunus nu-fu just about to |plural, more than one plu nu-pa have just |pocket marsu nudi naked |point to indika nuki nut |point, cusp kuspi nuklea nucleus |poison, toxin toxi nuli nothing, not at all |pole (geography) pola numera number, count |pole, stake pali nuta nod |police polica obe obey |polish lustra Obodenus walrus |politics politika obesi fat, obese |pollute poluti oceani ocean |pond stagna ocide west (the) |poor, miserable pove odio hate |popular popula odoro smell |post, mail posta ofero offer |potato potato ofici office |pour fusi ok eight |powder pulve okasio opportunity |power dinamo oklu nut (tool) |practice praxi okto eight |praise lauda oku eye, peep |precise precise olea oil |press baro oleo-resina turpentine |pretend fikti olface smell |price preci oligo few |prick, sting punge opinio opine |priest pastora opresi oppress |prison karcera orange orange |prize premi ordina grade (to) |probable probabili ordinari ordinary |probe sonda organi organ |process procesi organismo organism |produce produce ori rise |profit profito orienta east (the) |program programa origi origin, source |progress progresi oriza rice |promise promise orna decorate |propagate propaga orto upright |prose prosa os mouth |proud auto-lauda osci oscillate, shake |prove demonstra osku kiss |publicize publika oskula kiss |pull trakto osteo bone |pump pumpa ostraka shell |punish puni oti ear |purse, bourse bursa ova egg |push, pulsate pulsa ovali oval |puzzle enigma ovis sheep, ovine |pyramid pirami oxidi oxidise, rust |quality qalita pa past, did, -ed |quantity qantita pa fu was going to |quarrel disputa pa more used to |quarter qarto pa-di yesterday |queen fe-regi paci peace |question qestio paga pay |question (?) qe pagina page |rabbit lepus paketa parcel |race racia paka bale |radiate radia paki thick, fat |radio radio paleo old |rail raila pali pole, stake |rain pluvi, pluvia palpa examine by touch |rainbow iride, spektra paluda marsh |raise leva pan all |rapid, quick rapidi pani bread |rat ratus panika millet |rate, ratio ratio panto all |rats and mice muri panto-pe everybody |raw krudi panto-ra everything |ray rai papilio butterfly |react, heed reakti papira paper |read lekto para beside |ready prepara paralisi paralyse |real, realize, make real reali pardo forgive, pardon |reason (to) logika parenta parent |rebel rebeli parenta-par. grandparent |recess recesi participa take part |record registra pasa pass |recorder magnetofono pasta dough, paste |rectangle rektangula pastora priest |red rubi, eritro patela pan |reflect reflekti pato sick |regular uniformi patri father |related, cognate kognati pe (-pe) person, worker |relative relativi peci a bit of, a little |religion religio pedi foot |remain residua pedi-lo floor |remember memo pektina comb |remove apo peleki axe, hatchet |repair, heal repara pen five |report reporta pencila pencil |represent representa pende hang |reproduce reproduce pende ex depend |request, beg petitio penite sorry |research recerka penta five |respect respekti pepsi digestion |responsible liabili per by means of, with |reversal versi per-co in this way |rhythm ritmi perfekti perfect |rib, side, coast kosta peri around |rice oriza peri-lo environment |right (a) privilegi perplexi baffle |right, just justi persekuti persecute |right-hand dextro persika peach |ring zo (-zo), zona persona person |ripe matura peruka wig |rise ori, surge peti rush, dash, fly |rite, ceremony ritu petitio request, beg |river fluvi petro rock |rock petro piga buttocks |rod, stick, bar baci pikro bitter |roll kili pikto picture, image |roll rola pilula pill |roof stego pina feather |room ka (-ka), pinceta tweezers | kamera pipera pepper |root radi pirami pyramid |rose rodo piro fire, pyre |rot sapro pirus pear |rotate gira piski fish |rough rugo pisu pea |round rondo pisum pea |rub, friction frika, frikti pla shelf |rubber gumi, latex, place please | latici plaka slab, cake |rubbish rudi plankto float |ruler regi plano flat, plane |run dromo planta plant (to) |run away fugi plasti shape, mould (mold) |rush, dash, fly peti plati flat and wide |rustle, whisper krepita, platiforma platform | susura ple fill, full |rye sekali plei more (number) |sacred sakri pleisto most (number), majority |sad tristi plekto braid |sadistic sadisti plika fold |safe imuni plu plural, more than one |safe place asila plu lenti glasses |sail vela plu-ci these |salmon salmo plu-la those |salt sali plumba lead (Pb) |sand arena, sili plura several |satellite satelita plus additional, too, also |save salva plus-co moreover |say, speak, tell dice pluto wealth, resources |scale lepido pluvi rain |scan skana pluvi-skuta umbrella |scarcely proxi-ne pluvia rain |scatter spora po after |science skience po-co afterwards |scissors cisori po-kron late |scrape, shave razo poda leg |sea mari poeia create |search, circling cerka poesi poetry |second (time) sekunda pola pole (geography) |secretary sekretari polex thumb |see vide poli many |seed sperma polica police |seem feno polio grey, gray |seemly deko polio-bruno fawn |seize rape politika politics |self se poluti pollute |self, own auto pomi apple |selfish egotisti ponde weigh |sell vendo ponti bridge |send mite popula popular |sense sensi porifera sponge |sensitive sensitivi porta door |sentence frase posi might, may, perhaps |separate kri, lisi post after |series seria posta post, mail |service servi posta-teka posting box |seven septi, seti poste behind |several plura postula suppose |sew sue potato potato |sex sexu pote can, able |shade, shadow umbra pove poor, miserable |shake seiso pragma affair |shall have fu pa praxi practice |shall, future fu pre before |shame pude pre-kron early |shape, form forma, morfo preci price |shape, mould (mold) plasti precise precise |shareholder, renter rentiera premi prize |shark selaci prepara ready |sharp akuto privilegi right (a) |sharp end, dot punkta pro for, in favor of |she, her fe probabili probable |sheath kolea, vagina procesi process |sheep, ovine ovis produce produce |shelf pla profito profit, advantage, |shell konka, ostraka benefit |shield, TV screen skuta profunda deep |shine lampa programa program |shine splendi progresi progress |shirt su tunika prokura acquire |shock trauma promise promise |shop bo (-bo), propaga propagate | boteka proposi suggest |shore litora proprie own (to) |short brevi prosa prose |shorthand, stenography takografo proskeni stage |should, ought debi protesta complain |shoulder, scapular skapa proto first, begin |shout voci proxi nearly |show monstra proxi-ne scarcely |shrimp karis prunus plum |sick pato psiko mind, soul |side latu ptero wing |sieve kribri publika publicize |sign sema pude shame |sign (gesture) signi pugna fight |signify, to mean semani, pulmona lung | signifi pulsa push, pulsate |silk seriko pulve powder |silly, fatuous fatuo pulvina pillow, cushion |silver argenti pumpa pump |similarly homo-co punge prick, sting |simple elementa puni punish |simulate, pretend simula punkta sharp end, dot |sing, song kanta, kanti puri clean |sister sorori purpuro-rubi crimson |sit sedi, side pusi small, a little |six six puta think |skeleton, framework skeleto puta-me computer |skillful, clever tekno pute well (water) |skin derma qadra square |skirt infra tunika qalita quality |skull, cranium krania qantita quantity, amount |sky, heaven urani qanto how much? / how many? |slab, cake plaka qarto quarter |slack, flaccid flaci qe question (?) |slave dulo qestio question |sleep somni, sopo qestio se ask onself |slender lepto qi who, which |slice lamina qo what? |slide, glide glisa qo freqe how often? |slime, mucus muci qo metri how much? |slip lapse qo numera how many? |slope, prone klina qo speci what sort of? |slow lento qo-ka why? / what cause? |small, a little pusi qo-lo where? |smash klasti qo-pe who? |smell odoro, olface qo-ra what thing? |smell (emit) dona odoro qo-te why? / what intent? |smell (sense) este odoro qod which, that which |smile smi, sub ridi qu whether |smoke fumi ra (-ra) thing, affair |smooth glabro rabi mad |snail koklea racia race |snake serpenti radi root |sneeze snazi radia radiate |snow nivi radio radio |so very ta rai ray |so, thus so raila rail |soap sapo rami branch, stick |social sociali rana frog |society societa rape seize |socket glena rapi arrest |soft; grind moli rapidi rapid, quick |solemn solemni ratio rate, ratio |solid solidi, stereo ratus rat |solution solutio razo scrape, shave |solve solve reakti react, heed |somebody uno-pe reali real, realize, make real |sorry penite rebeli rebel |sound fono, soni recerka research |soup supa recesi recess |south austra, sud reflekti reflect |space space regi ruler |space, cosmos kosmo registra record |spade spata rektangula rectangle |spend spende rekti straight |spider aranea relativi relative |spiral helika religio religion |spirit, soul spiritu rena kidney |split, crack fisu rentiera shareholder, renter |split, tear skizo repara repair, heal |sponge porifera repli answer |spoon spatula reporta report |sport, game sporta representa represent |spot, at topo reproduce reproduce |spot, stain, mark makula repti creep, crawl |spray spre residua remain |spring (season) blasto-tem resista strong |spring elasti respekti respect |spy espio responde answer |square qadra resta stay, remain |squirrel skiurus reti network |stable stabili retro backward, ago |stage proskeni ridi laugh |stalk kauli ridi anti laugh at |stamp (postage) ateli, rigi stiff | posta-bileta rigidi stiff, obstinate |stamp (to) stampa ripa bank (river) |stand sta risko danger |standard, norm, average norma ritmi rhythm |star astro ritu rite, ceremony |starch amila rodo rose |state stato rola roll |state (to) deklara rondo round |station, to park statio rosa pink |statue statu rostri beak |stay, remain resta rota wheel |steal, thieve klepto ru (-ru) instrument, tool |steam vapo rubi red |steel dura feru rubi-xanto orange |step gradu rudi rubbish |sticky hesi ruga wrinkle |stiff rigi rugo rough |stiff, obstinate rigidi rura countryside |stimulate stimula Sa. Ms., Miss, Mrs. |stirrup stape sadi cruel |stomach gastro sadisti sadistic |stone li (-li), lito sagita arrow |store stora saka bag, sack |storm tempestu sakri sacred |stove furna sali salt |straight rekti salmo salmon |strange, foreign xeno salta jump, leap |street, way strata, via saluta welcome, greet |strict severi salva save |stripe stria sani health |strong resista sapo soap |struggle lukta sapro rot |study stude sasi grasp |stuff, matter ma (-ma), satelita satellite | materi sati enough |stupid stupidi sauru lizard |succeed sucede se self |suck suge sed but |sudden subito sedi sit |sugar sukro-ma seiso shake |suggest proposi seka cut |sulfur, sulphur sulfi sekali rye |sum suma sekretari secretary |summarize sumari sekunda second (time) |summer termo-tem, selaci shark | estiva sema sign, beckon |sun helio, sola semani signify, to mean |suppose postula semi half |sure sura sensi sense |surface su-facia sensitivi sensitive |swallow gluto senti afraid |swan cigni septi seven |swear oath jura seqe follow |sweat sudo seqe-co consequently |sweet sukro seri list, series |swell tumo seria series |swim nekto seriko silk |switch off, stop sto serpenti snake |switch on, cause, make sti servi service |sword gladia seta bristle |symbol simboli seti seven |sympathy simpati setimana week |syringe siringi severi strict |table tabla sexu sex |tail kauda si if |take sume sibila whistle |take part participa side sit |tame dama signi sign (gesture) |tape banda, taeni signifi signify, to mean |taste gusta sika dry |tax fiska sili sand |tea tea silva woodland, wood, forest |tear (eye) lakrima simboli symbol |tear (rip) lacera simia monkey, ape |teat teli simpati sympathy |telephone telefono simpto hint, symptom |television televisio simul together |ten deka simula simulate, pretend |tension tensi sin with |tension, stretch, stress tensio sine without |terrible deino singu each |testify testi sinior mister |thanks gratia siniora madam, missus |that u-la siniorina miss |the-just-said -co sio would...if |theater, theatre teatra sipa waste |theirs u-mu siringi syringe |theme, topic topika, tema sistema tidy, system |theory teori sito food |therapy, treat terapi six six |there la skala ladder |there is, there are il es skana scan |therefore ka-co skapa shoulder, scapular |these plu-ci skeleto skeleton, framework |they, them, their mu skema plan, scheme |thick, fat paki skende climb |thin tenu ski know |thing ra (-ra) skience science |think puta skiurus squirrel |think (hard) kogita skizo split, tear |thirsty dipso sklero hard |thirty tri-ze sko instruct |this u-ci skope look (at) |those plu-la skoto dark |thought, idea idea skribe write |thousand kilo skulptu carve |thread fi (-fi), skuta shield, TV screen | filament smi smile |threaten menace snazi sneeze |three tri so so, thus |threshold limina socia partner |thrive vigo sociali social |throat faringi societa society |through dia sofi wise |throw bali sola sun |thumb polex solemni solemn |thunder bronto solidi solid |ticket bileta solo alone |tidy, system sistema solutio solution |tie liga solve solve |tile tegula soma body |time, while, during tem somni sleep |time-table tabula sonda probe |tin stana soni sound |tiny mikro sopo sleep |tire fatiga sorori sister |tissue histo space space |to that extent metri-co spasmo jerk |today nu-di spata spade |together kon alelo, spatula spoon | simul spe hope |toilet, W.C. kloseta speci kind, sort |tomorrow fu-di spekta look |tongue, language, Glosa glosa spektra rainbow |too excesi, tro spekula mirror |tool instrumenta speleo cave |tooth denti spende spend |top, tip akro sperma seed |tortoise keloni sperma-tem autumn |touch tange spira breathe |tourist turisti spiritu spirit, soul |towards, at a(d) splendi shine |tower tura sponta free, unbidden |town urba spora scatter |traffic cirkulatio sporta sport, game |train trena spre spray |transparent luci Sr. Mr. |trap kapti-me sta stand |travel itinera stabili stable |travel, voyage viagia stagna pond |tree dendro stana tin |true, correct veri stape stirrup |trunk (tree) trunku statio station, to park |try tenta stato state |tube tubi statu statue |tunnel, burrow tunela stego roof |turn tropi steno narrow |turpentine oleo-resina stereo solid |tweezers pinceta sti switch on, cause, make |twin gemini sti mira amaze |twist strepto stilo pen |two bi stimula stimulate |type, print tipo sto switch off, stop |umbrella pluvi-skuta stoma mouth |under, below sub, hipo stora store |under, beneath infra strata street, way |understand logi strategi cunning |uninquisitive no-qestio strepto twist |unique, private, stria stripe | special, peculiar idio stude study |unite uni stupe astonish |universe kosmo, stupidi stupid | universa su above, over |university universita su toto especially |upright orto su tunika shirt |upwards ana su-facia surface |urinate urina sub under |use uti sub kloro greenish |used to pa more sub ridi smile |useful funktio suberi cork |vacuum vakuo subito sudden |vain vani sucede succeed |valley vali sud south |value, worth valu sudo sweat |valve, tap valva sue sew |van kamiona sue-me sewing machine |vanilla vanila suge suck |vanish vanesce sui pig, swine |varnish vernisa sukro sweet |vegetable vegeta, sukro-ma sugar | sito-fito suku juice |veil, sail veli sulfi sulfur, sulphur |vein veno sulko ship's wake |velvet veluta suma sum |ventilation ventila sumari summarize |verandah veranda sume take |verb klavi verba supa soup |verdict judika supra above, over |very many miria supracilia eyebrow |very young ju sura sure, assure |very, intense fo (fo-), surge rise | forti susura rustle, whisper |vessel, container va (-va), ta so very | vasa, vaso taba board |vibrate vibra tabla table |victim viktimi tabula time-table |view, visible, scene vista taci be silent |village viki taeni tape |vine viti tako fast, quick, speed |vinegar vinagra takografo shorthand, stenography |violet violeta tange touch |violin violina tape carpet |virgin virgo tardi late |visit visita tarsu ankle |vitamin vitamina tasa cup |voice voka taxo arrange |volcano vulkani Taxus yew |volume, space volumi te in order to |volume, tome tomi te (-te) cloth |vomit vomita tea tea |vote vota teatra theater, theatre |vowel vokali tegu cover |vulgar vulga tegula tile |vulture vultura teka box |wafer biskokta tekno skillful, clever |wait atende tekto build |wake (ship's) sulko tele far |walk gresi telefono telephone |wall mura televisio television |walnut Juglans teli teat |walrus Obodenus tem time, while, during |waltz valza tem dona lend |wand virga tem gene borrow |wander vaga tem-co meanwhile |want, wish volu tema theme, topic |war guera tempestu storm |warm meso termo tena hold, keep from change |warn monito tende aim, purpose |was going to pa fu tensi tension |wash lava tensio tension, stretch, stress |wasp vespa tenta try |waste sipa, disipa tenu thin |water aqa, hidro teo god |wave unda, undu teori theory |wax ceru tera earth, ground, soil |we, us, our na terapi therapy, treat |wealth, resources pluto termo heat |weapon arma termo-tem summer |weather klima testi testify |wedding ring game-zo tet four |wedge kune, kunea tetra four |weed u sponta tetra-ze forty |week setimana textili cloth |weekend setimana-fini timpani drum |weep, cry lakrima tipo type, print |weigh ponde toga cloak |weird misteri tolera patient |welcome, greet saluta, ave tomi tome, volume |well bene topika theme, topic |well, water frea, putea topo spot, at |west ocide, uest toraki chest |what sort of? qo toxi poison, toxin |what thing? qo-ra trakto pull |whatever ali-ra trans across |wheat tritiku trapa trap |wheel, cycle rota, ciklo trauma shock |wheelbarrow rota-va trena train |whenever ali-kron tri three |where? qo-lo tribuna court of law |whereby per qi triko hair |wherein in qi tristi sad |whether qu tritiku wheat |which, that which qod tro too |whichever ali-ra trompeta bugle, trumpet |while, during tem, duranto tropi turn |whip flagela trunku trunk (tree) |whisky wiski tu you, your (singular) |whistle sibila tubi tube |white albi, leuko tumo swell |who, which qi tunela tunnel, burrow |who? qo-pe tunika dress |whoever ali-pe tura tower |whole holo turba disturb |why? / what cause? qo-ka turisti tourist |why? / what intent? qo-te tusi cough |wide lati u bi a pair |widow vidua u sponta weed |wig peruka u(n) a(n), the |wild agrio u-ci this |win gania, vikto u-la that |wind venti u-mi mine |window fenestra u-na ours |wine vini u-mu theirs |wing ala, ptero u-tu yours |wink nikti uest west |winter frigi-tem, ultima last | hiberna ultra beyond |wise sofi ulula howl |with, present ko(n); sin umbra shade, shadow |withhold non-ofero unda wave |without sine undu wave |without, lack, minus minus ungua nail, hoof |wolf lupus uni unite |woman, wife gina uniformi regular |womb uteru unio meet-ing |wonder mira universa universe |woo; court, yard korta universita university |wood ligni unki hook |wood, xylum xilo unktu ointment |woodland, wood, forest silva uno-pe somebody |wool lana ur original |word lexi, verba urani sky, heaven |work, labor ergo, labori urba town |world munda urina urinate |world-wide holo munda uteru womb |worm vermi uti use |worship latri va (-va) vessel, container |would...if sio vaga wander |wound vulne vagina sheath |wrap up involve vagona car |wrestle lukta vaku empty |wrinkle ruga vakuo vacuum |wrist karpu vale farewell |write grafo, skribe vali valley, vale |wrong mis valu value, worth |wrong, deceive, fraud falsi valuta money, currency |X-ray X-radia valva valve, tap |yard korta valza waltz |yawn hiao vanesce vanish |year anua vani vain |yeast zimo vanila vanilla |yellow xanto vapo steam, vapor |yes ja vasa vessel, container |yesterday pa-di vaso vessel, container |yet a-nu ve (-ve) garment |yield, cede cede vegeta vegetable |you, your (plural) vi vekto carry, lever |you, your (singular) tu vela sail |young juve veli veil, sail |zebra zebra veluta velvet |zero, -ty ze vendo sell |zero, nothing zero veni come |zigzag zigazaga veno vein |zinc zinko venti wind |zone zona, -zo veranda verandah | verba word | veri true, correct | verifi check, verify | vermi worm | vernisa varnish | versi back to begin, reversal | verte back to fr., upside down | vesikula blister | vespa wasp | vespera evening | vesti garment | vestibula vestibule | veto forbid | vexa annoy, irritate | vi you, your (plural) | via street, way | viagia travel, voyage | vibra vibrate | vice instead of, replace | vide see | vidua widow | vigi awake | vigo thrive, vigor | viki village | viktimi victim | vikto win, victory | vinagra vinegar | vini wine | viole attack, assault | violeta violet | violina violin | virga wand | virgin virgo | visita visit | vista view, visible, scene | vita life | vitamina vitamin | viti vine | vitri glass | vive live | voci shout | voka voice | vokali vowel | vola fly | volu want, wish | volumi volume, space | vomita vomit | vora eat | vota vote | vulga ordinary, vulgar | vulkani volcano | vulne wound | vulpe fox | vultura vultura | wiski whisky | xanto yellow | xeno strange, foreign | xilo wood, xylum | ze zero, -ty | zea maize (U.S.: corn) | zebra zebra | zelo eager, enthusiastic | zero zero, nothing | zigazaga zigzag | zigo join | zimo yeast | zinko zinc | zo (-zo) ring | zoa animal | zona ring, zone | _______________________________________________________________________________ GENERICS | TENSES ______________________________________|________________________________________ -bo shop (BOteka) |now nu -bo-pe shopkeeper |past, -ed, did pa -do house, building (DOmi) |shall, future fu -fa set, bundle (FAski) |continue, -ing du -fi filament (FIlament) |have just nu pa -ka room (KAmera) |was going to pa fu -li stone (LIto) |shall have fu pa -lo place (LOka) |________________________________________ -ma material (MAteria) | MODALS -me device (MEkani) |________________________________________ -mo furniture (MObili) |about to prepara -pe person (PErsona) |usually more -ra thing (ReAli) |begin to proto -ru instrument (instRUmenta)|can, able to pote -te cloth (TExtili) |cease to no-dura -va vessel (VAsa) |hope to spe -ve garment (VEsti) |intend te; tende -zo ring (ZOna) |like to hedo ______________________________________|may, perhaps posi PRONOUNS |may, licensed lice ______________________________________|must nece I,me,my mi |ought to debi you, your tu [singular] |seem to feno she,her fe |try to tenta he,his an |used to pa more one, one's pe |want to volu it,its id |________________________________________ we,us,our na | VERBOIDS you, your vi [plural] |________________________________________ they, them,their mu |be, is, am, are es oneself se |act, do akti self, own auto |feel este each other alelo |find detekti ______________________________________|get, receive gene LINK WORDS |give dona ______________________________________|got pa gene the just-said -co |got...en ge- accordingly akorda-co |have habe afterwords po-co |hear audi; akusti also ko-co |keep tena apart from that no-klu-co |lose lose by the way para-co |make, build face consequently seqe-co |move, go kine; ki conversely kontra-co |move, put moti even so klu-co |pull trakto; tira finally fini-co |react reakti from all that ex-co |remove apo however anti-co |say, speak dice in this way per-co |see vide meanwhile tem-co |stimulate sti moreover plus-co |throw bali nevertheless anti-co |________________________________________ otherwise hetero-co | COMPARISON similarly homo-co |________________________________________ summing up suma-co |identical iso therefore ka-co |like homo to that extent metri-co | ______________________________________|more...than ASSOCIATIVES |less...than ______________________________________|most, -est maxi about de |least mini in addition to plus |very fo- though anti |________________________________________ according to akorda | WHEN alternative alo |________________________________________ back to begin versi |after po because of kausa |before pre in comparison kompara |day di on condition, if konditio |evening vespera consequently seqe |hour horo touching tange |month meno favoring pro |morning mana indicating indika |minute minuta hanging pende |night noktu like homo |ago retro by means of per |second sekunda including klu |during tem; duranto even klu |instant kron intentional tende |year anua instead of vice |________________________________________ near proxi | WHERE in so far as metro |________________________________________ suitable, fit kongru |across trans supposing, if postula |around peri useful funktio |at a; topo with, present sin; ko |at, towards a; ad without, lack minus |away ab ______________________________________|backwards retro NUMBERS |beside para ______________________________________|beyond ultra 0 ze; zero |down kata 1 mo |east orienta 2 bi |edge litora; margina 3 tri |far tele; dista 4 tet; tetra |from, out of ex 5 pen; penta |here ci 6 six |in in 7 seti; septi |inside intra 8 ok; okto |in front ante 9 nona |left levo 10 deka |middle meso 11 mo mo |north boreo 12 mo bi |on epi 20 bi ze |opposite kontra 50 pen ze |outside extra 92 nona bi |over, above supra; su 100 mo centi |place loka; -lo 1000 mo kilo |right dextro 1 000 000 miliona |side latu 10^6 dek a six |south austra 5/8, 5 over 8 pen su ok |there la 3,2 tri koma bi |through dia + plus |under infra; hipo - minus |up ana x, by para |west ocide 3 x 4 = 12 tri para tet eqa |________________________________________ mo bi | COLORS / (divide) divide |________________________________________ 5 books penta bibli |beige leuko-bruno the 5th book u bibli penta |black melano 3 times tri kron |blue ciano they have 2 each singu pe habe bi ra |brown bruno how many? qo numera?; qanto? |colorless minus kroma count them numera mu |crimson purpuro-rubi June 8 di ok, meno six |fawn polio-bruno Monday di bi |green kloro date datu |greenish sub-kloro ______________________________________|dark green melano-kloro ARTICLES |deep green fo-kloro ______________________________________|grey polio a, the u |orange rubi-xanto more than one plu |pale green leuko-kloro all, every pan(to) |purple purpuro any ali |red rubi each singu |white leuko enough of sati |yellow xanto few oligo |________________________________________ big, much, lot mega | GREETINGS many, a lot of poli; multi |________________________________________ a little pusi |good day; hello boni di only solo |good morning boni mana a bit of mero; peci |good evening boni vespera this (the-here) u-ci |good night boni nokti that (the-there) u-la |hello; welcome saluta these / those plu-ci / plu-la |greetings plu saluta a kind of speci |How are you? Komo tu? the whole of holo |Are you well? Qe tu es bene? which? qo? |hello ave ______________________________________|goodbye vale QUESTIONS |au revoir a re-vide ______________________________________|happy birthday hedo nati-di yes/no questions Qe... ? |merry Christmas hedo Kristo-nati What/Which? Qo? |happy new year hedo neo anua How many? Qo numera? |best wishes plu kardia saluta How much? Qo metri? |friendly greetings plu amiko saluta How often? Qo freqe? |congratulations plu gratula Why? (cause) Qo-ka? |I congratulate you Mi gratula tu. Why? (intent) Qo-te? |cheers; good health a tu sani Where? Qo-lo? |good luck boni fortuna What thing? Qo-ra? |bad luck mali fortuna Who? Qo-pe? |have a good journey boni viagia How? Qo-mode?; Komo? |how terrible komo deino When? Qo-horo?; Qo-di? |what a surprise komo mira |well bene N.B. Question words which are the |please place Object come after the verb. |thank you for... gratia de ... ______________________________________|no; yes no; ja NEGATIVES |sorry; excuse me penite; pardo ______________________________________|quite alright no-gravi not ne |Mr. Sinior (Sr.) not until ne pre |Ms. Siniorina (Sa.) opposites no- |Mrs. Siniora nothing nuli; zero |isn't it? qe? not at all nuli; zero |really? qe, veri? neither...nor |yours sincerely a tu sinceri |by the way para dice

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